Elisa Lepore, Rosa Lauretta, Marta Bianchini, Marilda Mormando, Cherubino Di Lorenzo and Vittorio Unfer

Inositols are natural molecules involved in several biochemical and metabolic functions in different organs and tissues. The term “inositols” refers to five natural stereoisomers, among which myo-Inositol (myo-Ins) is the most abundant one. Several mechanisms contribute to regulate cellular and tissue homeostasis of myo-Ins levels, including its endogenous synthesis and catabolism, transmembrane transport, intestinal adsorption and renal excretion. Alterations in these mechanisms can lead to a reduction of inositols levels, exposing patient to several pathological conditions, such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), hypothyroidism, hormonal and metabolic imbalances, like weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, myo-Ins is involved in different physiological processes as a key player in signal pathways, including reproductive, hormonal, and metabolic modulation. Genetic mutations in genes codifying for proteins of myo-Ins synthesis and transport, competitive processes with structurally similar molecules, and the administration of specific drugs that cause a central depletion of myo-Ins as a therapeutic outcome, can lead to a reduction of inositols levels. A deeper knowledge of the main mechanisms involved in cellular inositols depletion may add new insights for developing tailored therapeutic approaches and shaping the dosages and the route of administration, with the aim to develop efficacious and safe approaches counteracting inositols depletion-induced pathological events.